By visiting this site, you consent to the use of such cookies. Read More. Children 0 1 2 3 4 Children 01 1 years old 1 years old 2 years old 3 years old 4 years old 5 years old 6 years old 7 years old 8 years old 9 years old 10 years old 11 years old. Number of Attendants. It then began the fitting-out phase, as machinery was loaded into the ship and interior work began. In early April the Titanic underwent its sea trials, after which the ship was declared seaworthy. As it prepared to embark on its maiden voyage, the Titanic was one of the largest and most opulent ships in the world.
It had a gross registered tonnage i. The Titanic was approximately In addition, Ismay and Andrews were also traveling on the Titanic. After an hour of maneuverings to prevent the accident, the Titanic was under way. On the evening of April 10 the ship stopped at Cherbourg , France. After some two hours the Titanic resumed its journey.
On the morning of April 11 the liner made its last scheduled stop in Europe , at Queenstown Cobh , Ireland. At approximately pm the ship set sail for New York City. Onboard were some 2, people, approximately 1, of whom were passengers. Throughout much of the voyage, the wireless radio operators on the Titanic , Jack Phillips and Harold Bride, had been receiving iceberg warnings, most of which were passed along to the bridge. On the evening of April 14 the Titanic began to approach an area known to have icebergs.
At approximately pm the Mesaba sent a warning of an ice field. At pm the nearby Leyland liner Californian sent word that it had stopped after becoming surrounded by ice. Phillips, who was handling passenger messages, scolded the Californian for interrupting him.
Their task was made difficult by the fact that the ocean was unusually calm that night: because there would be little water breaking at its base, an iceberg would be more difficult to spot. At approximately pm , about nautical miles km south of Newfoundland , Canada , an iceberg was sighted, and the bridge was notified. The Titanic began to turn, but it was too close to avoid a collision.
At least five of its supposedly watertight compartments toward the bow were ruptured. The Titanic would founder.
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By reversing the engines, Murdoch actually caused the Titanic to turn slower than if it had been moving at its original speed. Most experts believe the ship would have survived if it had hit the iceberg head-on. Smith ordered Phillips to begin sending distress signals , one of which reached the Carpathia at approximately am on April 15, and the Cunard ship immediately headed toward the stricken liner.
However, the Carpathia was some 58 nautical miles km away when it received the signal, and it would take more than three hours to reach the Titanic. Other ships also responded, including the Olympic , but all were too far away.
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A vessel was spotted nearby, but the Titanic was unable to contact it. The Californian was also in the vicinity, but its wireless had been turned off for the night. As attempts were made to contact nearby vessels, the lifeboats began to be launched, with orders of women and children first. This problem was exacerbated by lifeboats being launched well below capacity, because crewmen worried that the davits would not be able to support the weight of a fully loaded boat. The Titanic had canceled its scheduled lifeboat drill earlier in the day, and the crew was unaware that the davits had been tested in Belfast.
Lifeboat number 7, which was the first to leave the Titanic , held only about 27 people, though it had space for In the end, only people would be rescued in lifeboats. Sources differ on how long they performed, some reporting that it was until shortly before the ship sank. Speculation also surrounded the last song they performed—likely either Autumn or Nearer My God to Thee. None of the musicians survived the sinking. By am water was seen at the base E deck of the Grand Staircase.
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Amid the growing panic, several male passengers tried to board lifeboat number 14, causing Fifth Officer Harold Lowe to fire his gun three times. At approximately am the lights on the Titanic went out. It then broke in two, with the bow going underwater. Reports later speculated that it took some six minutes for that section, likely traveling at approximately 30 miles 48 km per hour, to reach the ocean bottom. The stern momentarily settled back in the water before rising again, eventually becoming vertical. It briefly remained in that position before beginning its final plunge.
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At am the ship foundered as the stern also disappeared beneath the Atlantic. Water pressure allegedly caused that section, which still had air inside, to implode as it sank. Hundreds of passengers and crew went into the icy water. Fearful of being swamped, those in the lifeboats delayed returning to pick up survivors. By the time they rowed back, almost all the people in the water had died from exposure.
In the end, more than 1, perished. Aside from the crew, which had about fatalities, third class suffered the greatest loss: of approximately , only some survived. Subsequent claims that passengers in steerage were prevented from boarding boats, however, were largely dispelled.
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Many women also refused to leave their husbands and sons, while the difficulty of simply navigating the complex Titanic from the lower levels caused some to reach the top deck after most of the lifeboats had been launched. The Carpathia arrived in the area at approximately am , more than an hour after the Titanic sank. Lifeboat number 2 was the first to reach the liner. Over the next several hours the Carpathia picked up all survivors. Shortly before am the Carpathia headed for New York City, where it arrived to massive crowds on April In the popular mind, the glamour associated with the ship, its maiden voyage, and its notable passengers magnified the tragedy of its sinking.
Heroes and heroines—such as American Molly Brown , who helped command a lifeboat, and Capt. Arthur Henry Rostron of the Carpathia —were identified and celebrated by the press. Others—notably Ismay , who had found space in a lifeboat and survived—were vilified. There was a strong desire to explain the tragedy, and inquiries into the sinking were held in the United States and Great Britain.
The U. The officers did not know how many they could safely put aboard the lifeboats and launched many of them barely half-full. Sudden immersion into freezing water typically causes death within minutes, either from cardiac arrest , uncontrollable breathing of water, or cold incapacitation not, as commonly believed, from hypothermia , [m] and almost all of those in the water died of cardiac arrest or other bodily reactions to freezing water, within 15—30 minutes.
Distress signals were sent by wireless, rockets, and lamp, but none of the ships that responded was near enough to reach Titanic before she sank. Her journey was slowed by pack ice, fog, thunderstorms and rough seas.
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Later that day, confirmation came through that Titanic had been lost and that most of her passengers and crew had died. Some of the wealthier survivors chartered private trains to take them home, and the Pennsylvania Railroad laid on a special train free of charge to take survivors to Philadelphia. Carpathia was hurriedly restocked with food and provisions before resuming her journey to Fiume , Austria-Hungary. The ship's arrival in New York led to a frenzy of press interest, with newspapers competing to be the first to report the survivors' stories.
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Some reporters bribed their way aboard the pilot boat New York , which guided Carpathia into harbour, and one even managed to get onto Carpathia before she docked. Lloyd's paid the White Star Line the full sum owed to them within 30 days. Many charities were set up to help the victims and their families, many of whom lost their sole breadwinner, or, in the case of many Third Class survivors, everything they owned. In New York City, for example, a joint committee of the American Red Cross and Charity Organization Society formed to disburse financial aid to survivors and dependents of those who died.
One such fund was still in operation as late as the s. In the United States and Britain, more than 60 survivors combined to sue the White Star Line for damages connected to loss of life and baggage.
Even before the survivors arrived in New York, investigations were being planned to discover what had happened, and what could be done to prevent a recurrence. Inquiries were held in both the United States and United Kingdom, the former more robustly critical of traditions and practices, and scathing of the failures involved, and the latter broadly more technical and expert-oriented.
Smith also needed to subpoena all surviving British passengers and crew while they were still on American soil, which prevented them from returning to the UK before the American inquiry was completed on 25 May. Smith, however, already had a reputation as a campaigner for safety on US railroads, and wanted to investigate any possible malpractices by railroad tycoon J.
Morgan, Titanic ' s ultimate owner. Being run by the Board of Trade, who had previously approved the ship, it was seen by some as having little interest in its own or White Star's conduct being found negligent. Each inquiry took testimony from both passengers and crew of Titanic , crew members of Leyland Line's Californian , Captain Arthur Rostron of Carpathia and other experts. The American inquiry concluded that since those involved had followed standard practice, the disaster was an act of God.
Lord Mersey did however find fault with the "extremely high speed twenty-two knots which was maintained" following numerous ice warnings,  noting that without hindsight, "what was a mistake in the case of the Titanic would without doubt be negligence in any similar case in the future". The recommendations included strong suggestions for major changes in maritime regulations to implement new safety measures, such as ensuring that more lifeboats were provided, that lifeboat drills were properly carried out and that wireless equipment on passenger ships was manned around the clock.
Its final report recommended that all liners carry the system and that sufficient operators maintain a constant service. Californian had warned Titanic by radio of the pack ice that was the reason Californian had stopped for the night but was rebuked by Titanic ' s senior wireless operator, Jack Phillips. A reasonable and prudent course of action would have been to awaken the wireless operator and to instruct him to attempt to contact Titanic by that method.